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Neco 2023 Animal Husbandry Objective And Theory Questions And Answers
By on August 4th, 2023. Neco




Oestrus cycle is a reproductive cycle that occurs in most female mammals including humans. It refers to the regular pattern of hormonal changes and physiological events that prepare the female for reproduction.

(i) Antibodies: Colostrum is rich in antibodies also known as immunoglobulins which help provide passive immunity to newborns. These antibodies are transferred from the mother to the baby and help protect against various infectious diseases by enhancing the baby’s immune system.

(ii) Growth factors: Colostrum contains essential growth factors that aid in the growth and development of the newborn. These growth factors stimulate the production of new cells enhance tissue repair and regeneration and promote overall growth and development in the early stages of life.

(i) Progesterone maintains pregnancy in mammals.
(ii) Progesterone is essential for the development and maintenance of the uterine lining.
(iii) Progesterone helps prevent uterine contractions ensuring the stability of the pregnancy.
(iv) Progesterone stimulates mammary gland development.
(v) Progesterone suppresses the immune response.
(vi) Progesterone affects metabolism in farm animals by promoting the utilization of fat as an energy source.
(vii) Progesterone helps regulate blood glucose levels and maintain overall metabolic balance.

(i) Nesting behavior
(ii) Restlessness
(iii) Swollen udder
(iv) Vulvar swelling
(v) Milk production
(vi) Behavior changes

Livestock management refers to the practice of raising breeding and caring for animals that are raised for agricultural purposes such as food production fiber production or labor.

(i) Ear notching: Ear notching is a management practice commonly used in livestock farming, especially in pigs. It involves making unique and permanent cuts or notches on a pig’s ear using special notching pliers. This practice allows farmers to keep track of various aspects such as breeding history health records and ownership making it easier to manage and organize the herd.

(ii) Branding: Branding is a traditional method of marking animals by burning a specific pattern or code onto their skin using a hot branding iron. It is commonly used in livestock farming for cattle and horses. The branding iron is heated in a fire and then pressed onto the animal’s skin leaving a permanent mark.

(i) Restraint ensures the safety of both the cow and the person performing the ear notching.
(ii) Restraint allows for greater precision and accuracy during the ear-notching process.
(iii) Restraining the cow can help minimize its stress and anxiety during the procedure.
(iv) Proper restraint can significantly improve the efficiency of the ear-notching process.
(v) Restraint helps prevent complications associated with the cow’s movement during ear notching.

(i) The burdizzo crushes and closes off blood vessels simultaneously during castration leading to reduced bleeding compared to using a scalpel.
(ii) The use of a burdizzo eliminates the need for an incision or an open wound reducing the risk of infection compared to using a scalpel.
(iii) The burdizzo is a one-time purchase while using a scalpel requires regular blade replacements and sterilization.
(iv) The burdizzo causes less pain and stress to the animal compared to using a scalpel.
(v) The use of a burdizzo is a quicker and simpler technique compared to using a scalpel.

Soilage refers to the practice of feeding farm animals with fresh-cut green forage, such as grass, legumes, or other plants.


(i) High in energy
(ii) Low in fiber

(i) Low in energy
(ii) High in fiber

(i) Reduced bone strength
(ii) Poor growth
(iii) Muscle tremors
(iv) Reduced milk production
(v) Reproductive disorders

(i) Bone meal
(ii) Fish meal
(iii) Soybean meal
(iv) Corn Gluten meal

Animal improvement refers to the process of selectively breeding animals to enhance desirable traits such as productivity health temperament and appearance.

(i) Animal improvement aims to increase the productivity of animals by improving their genetic potential for traits.
(ii) Animal improvement focuses on developing animals that have greater resistance to diseases and parasites.
(iii) Animal improvement aims to develop animals with improved fertility rates and reproductive efficiency.
(iv) Animal improvement programs strive to produce animals with desirable quality traits.
(v) Animal improvement aims to develop animals that perform well in different climates and resist extreme temperatures.

(i) Selective breeding
(ii) Hybridization
(iii) Genetic modification
(iv) Clonal propagation
(v) Crossbreeding
(vi) Mutant selection

(i) Artificial insemination allows for the rapid dissemination of superior genetics enabling breeders to effectively produce offspring with highly desirable traits.
(ii) Artificial insemination allows for the use of semen from superior males that might otherwise be geographically limited or unavailable due to various constraints.
(iii) Artificial insemination reduces the risk of transmitting sexually transmitted diseases and other infections between animals during breeding.
(iv) Artificial insemination is more cost-effective compared to natural mating in terms of transportation housing and management of breeding animals.
(v) Artificial insemination allows for the simultaneous use of semen from a single male on multiple females.

(i) By implementing strategic grazing practices such as rotational grazing that limit the exposure of livestock to infected areas.
(ii) By regularly monitoring and treating infected animals to minimize the number of viable liver fluke eggs shed into the environment.
(iii) By maintaining proper drainage and avoiding the creation of wet and muddy areas where liver fluke larvae thrive.
(iv) By managing vegetation and water sources to prevent the buildup of snail populations which serve as intermediate hosts for liver fluke.
(v) By implementing strategic deworming programs that target liver fluke during periods of high risk based on local climatic conditions and the presence of snails.

(i) Ticks feed on the blood of animals which can lead to decreased weight gain and reduced milk production.
(ii) Ticks transmit diseases to livestock which can cause further economic losses through decreased productivity and increased medical expenses.
(iii) Tick infestations in livestock result in secondary infections which require veterinary treatment and can lead to additional expenses for the farmer.
(iv) Tick control measures including the use of acaricides and other treatments can be costly for farmers.
(v) Ticks affect the quality of livestock products such as meat and milk by transmitting pathogens and causing skin damage.

Causal organism:
Anthrax disease in cattle is caused by a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. It is a gram-positive spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium.

(i) Sudden death: Cattle infected with anthrax can die suddenly without showing any previous signs of illness.
(ii) Hemorrhagic fever: Infected cattle often develop hemorrhagic fever characterized by fever weakness loss of appetite and a rapid heartbeat.

Methods of transmission:
(i) Ingestion of spores: Cattle can become infected by consuming pasture or feed contaminated with the spores of Bacillus anthracis.
(ii) Contact with contaminated materials: Direct contact with contaminated materials such as soil water or carcasses of infected animals can also transmit anthrax to cattle.

Control measure:
One control measure for anthrax disease in cattle is vaccination. Vaccines against anthrax are available for cattle and can effectively prevent the disease. Vaccinating cattle in areas where anthrax is endemic or has recently been reported can help reduce the risk of infection.


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